IPSEC Tunnels

Tom Eastep

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.

2016/02/16


Caution

This article applies to Shorewall 3.0 and later. If you are running a version of Shorewall earlier than Shorewall 3.0.0 then please see the documentation for that release.

Important

The information in this article is only applicable if you plan to have IPSEC end-points on the same system where Shorewall is used.

Warning

This documentation is incomplete regarding using IPSEC and the 2.6 Kernel. Netfilter currently lacks full support for the 2.6 kernel's implementation of IPSEC. Until that implementation is complete, only a simple network-network tunnel is described for 2.6.

UPDATE: Some distributions such as SUSE™ are now shipping Kernels and iptables with the IPSEC-Netfilter patches and policy match support. Check this article for information concerning this support and Shorewall.

Preliminary Reading

I recommend reading the VPN Basics article if you plan to implement any type of VPN.

Configuring FreeS/Wan and Derivatives Such as OpenS/Wan

There is an excellent guide to configuring IPSEC tunnels at http://jixen.tripod.com/. I highly recommend that you consult that site for information about configuring FreeS/Wan.

Important

The documentation below assumes that you have disabled opportunistic encryption feature in FreeS/Wan 2.0 using the following additional entries in ipsec.conf:

conn block
        auto=ignore

conn private
        auto=ignore

conn private-or-clear
        auto=ignore

conn clear-or-private
        auto=ignore

conn clear
        auto=ignore

conn packetdefault
        auto=ignore

For further information see http://www.freeswan.org/freeswan_trees/freeswan-2.03/doc/policygroups.html.

IPSec Gateway on the Firewall System

Suppose that we have the following situation:

We want systems in the 192.168.1.0/24 sub-network to be able to communicate with systems in the 10.0.0.0/8 network. We assume that on both systems A and B, eth0 is the Internet interface.

To make this work, we need to do two things:

  1. Open the firewall so that the IPSEC tunnel can be established (allow the ESP and AH protocols and UDP Port 500).

  2. Allow traffic through the tunnel.

Opening the firewall for the IPSEC tunnel is accomplished by adding an entry to the /etc/shorewall/tunnels file.

In /etc/shorewall/tunnels on system A, we need the following

#TYPE      ZONE        GATEWAY          GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec      net         134.28.54.2

In /etc/shorewall/tunnels on system B, we would have:

#TYPE      ZONE        GATEWAY          GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec      net         206.161.148.9

Note

If either of the endpoints is behind a NAT gateway then the tunnels file entry on the other endpoint should specify a tunnel type of ipsecnat rather than ipsec and the GATEWAY address should specify the external address of the NAT gateway.

You need to define a zone for the remote subnet or include it in your local zone. In this example, we'll assume that you have created a zone called vpn to represent the remote subnet. Note that you should define the vpn zone before the net zone.

/etc/shorewall/zones (both systems):

#ZONE          TYPE         OPTIONS
vpn            ipv4
net            ipv4

If you are running kernel 2.4:

At both systems, ipsec0 would be included in /etc/shorewall/interfaces as a vpn interface:

#ZONE         INTERFACE         BROADCAST       OPTIONS
vpn           ipsec0

If you are running kernel 2.6:

It is essential that the vpn zone be declared before the net zone in /etc/shorewall/zones.

Remember the assumption that both systems A and B have eth0 as their Internet interface.

You must define the vpn zone using the /etc/shorewall/hosts file.

/etc/shorewall/hosts - System A

#ZONE        HOSTS                  OPTIONS
vpn          eth0:10.0.0.0/8

/etc/shorewall/hots - System B

#ZONE        HOSTS                  OPTIONS
vpn          eth0:192.168.1.0/24

In addition, if you are using Masquerading or SNAT on your firewalls, you need to eliminate the remote network from Masquerade/SNAT. These entries replace your current masquerade/SNAT entries for the local networks.

/etc/shorewall/masq - System A

#INTERFACE            SOURCE                ADDRESS
eth0:!10.0.0.0/8      192.168.1.0/24

/etc/shorewall/masq - System B

#INTERFACE            SOURCE                ADDRESS
eth0:!192.168.1.0/24  10.0.0.0/8

You will need to allow traffic between the vpn zone and the loc zone -- if you simply want to admit all traffic in both directions, you can use the policy file:

#SOURCE       DEST        POLICY       LOG LEVEL
loc           vpn         ACCEPT
vpn           loc         ACCEPT

Once you have these entries in place, restart Shorewall (type shorewall restart); you are now ready to configure the tunnel in FreeS/WAN.

VPN Hub using Kernel 2.4

Shorewall can be used in a VPN Hub environment where multiple remote networks are connected to a gateway running Shorewall. This environment is shown in this diagram.

We want systems in the 192.168.1.0/24 sub-network to be able to communicate with systems in the 10.0.0.0/16 and 10.1.0.0/16 networks and we want the 10.0.0.0/16 and 10.1.0.0/16 networks to be able to communicate.

To make this work, we need to do several things:

  1. Open the firewall so that two IPSEC tunnels can be established (allow the ESP and AH protocols and UDP Port 500).

  2. Allow traffic through the tunnels two/from the local zone (192.168.1.0/24).

  3. Deny traffic through the tunnels between the two remote networks.

Opening the firewall for the IPSEC tunnels is accomplished by adding two entries to the /etc/shorewall/tunnels file.

In /etc/shorewall/tunnels on system A, we need the following

#TYPE         ZONE         GATEWAY         GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec         net          134.28.54.2
ipsec         net          130.252.100.14

In /etc/shorewall/tunnels on systems B and C, we would have:

#TYPE         ZONE         GATEWAY         GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec         net          206.161.148.9

Note

If either of the endpoints is behind a NAT gateway then the tunnels file entry on the other endpoint should specify a tunnel type of ipsecnat rather than ipsec and the GATEWAY address should specify the external address of the NAT gateway.

On each system, we will create a zone to represent the remote networks. On System A:

#ZONE       TYPE         OPTIONS
vpn1        ipv4
vp2         ipv4

On systems B and C:

#ZONE       TYPE         OPTIONS
vpn         ipv4

At system A, ipsec0 represents two zones so we have the following in /etc/shorewall/interfaces:

#ZONE       INTERFACE    BROADCAST       OPTIONS
-           ipsec0

The /etc/shorewall/hosts file on system A defines the two VPN zones:

#ZONE       HOSTS                        OPTIONS
vpn1        ipsec0:10.0.0.0/16
vpn2        ipsec0:10.1.0.0/16

At systems B and C, ipsec0 represents a single zone so we have the following in /etc/shorewall/interfaces:

#ZONE       INTERFACE       BROADCAST    OPTIONS
vpn         ipsec0

On systems A, you will need to allow traffic between the vpn1 zone and the loc zone as well as between vpn2 and the loc zone -- if you simply want to admit all traffic in both directions, you can use the following policy file entries on all three gateways:

#SOURCE      DEST       POLICY           LOG LEVEL
loc          vpn1       ACCEPT
vpn1         loc        ACCEPT
loc          vpn2       ACCEPT
vpn2         loc        ACCEPT

On systems B and C, you will need to allow traffic between the vpn zone and the loc zone -- if you simply want to admit all traffic in both directions, you can use the following policy file entries on all three gateways:

/etc/shorewall/policy -- Systems B & C

#SOURCE      DEST       POLICY           LOG LEVEL
loc          vpn        ACCEPT
vpn          loc        ACCEPT

Once you have the Shorewall entries added, restart Shorewall on each gateway (type shorewall restart); you are now ready to configure the tunnels in FreeS/WAN.

Note

to allow traffic between the networks attached to systems B and C, it is necessary to simply add two additional entries to the /etc/shorewall/policy file on system A.

#SOURCE      DEST       POLICY           LOG LEVEL
vpn1         vpn2       ACCEPT
vpn2         vpn1       ACCEPT

Note

If you find traffic being rejected/dropped in the OUTPUT chain, place the names of the remote VPN zones as a comma-separated list in the GATEWAY ZONE column of the /etc/shorewall/tunnels file entry.

Mobile System (Road Warrior) Using Kernel 2.4

Suppose that you have a laptop system (B) that you take with you when you travel and you want to be able to establish a secure connection back to your local network.

Example 1. Road Warrior VPN

You need to define a zone for the laptop or include it in your local zone. In this example, we'll assume that you have created a zone called vpn to represent the remote host.

/etc/shorewall/zones - System A

#ZONE      TYPE        OPTIONS
vpn        ipv4

In this instance, the mobile system (B) has IP address 134.28.54.2 but that cannot be determined in advance. In the /etc/shorewall/tunnels file on system A, the following entry should be made:

#TYPE       ZONE       GATEWAY        GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec       net        0.0.0.0/0

Note

the GATEWAY ZONE column contains the name of the zone corresponding to peer subnetworks. This indicates that the gateway system itself comprises the peer subnetwork; in other words, the remote gateway is a standalone system.

You will need to configure /etc/shorewall/interfaces and establish your through the tunnel policy as shown under the first example above.


Dynamic RoadWarrior Zones

Beginning with Shorewall release 1.3.10, you can define multiple VPN zones and add and delete remote endpoints dynamically using /sbin/shorewall. With Shorewall 2.0.2 Beta 1 and later versions, this capability must be enabled by setting DYNAMIC_ZONES=Yes in shorewall.conf.

Important

DYNAMIC_ZONES=Yes is not supported by Shorewall-perl 4.2.0 or later versions. Use dynamic zones defined by ipsets instead.

In /etc/shorewall/zones:

#ZONE       TYPE       OPTIONS
vpn1        ipv4
vpn2        ipv4
vpn3        ipv4

In /etc/shorewall/tunnels:

#TYPE       ZONE       GATEWAY         GATEWAY ZONE
ipsec       net        0.0.0.0/0       vpn1,vpn2,vpn3

When Shorewall is started, the zones vpn[1-3] will all be empty and Shorewall will issue warnings to that effect. These warnings may be safely ignored. FreeS/Wan may now be configured to have three different Road Warrior connections with the choice of connection being based on X-509 certificates or some other means. Each of these connections will utilize a different updown script that adds the remote station to the appropriate zone when the connection comes up and that deletes the remote station when the connection comes down. For example, when 134.28.54.2 connects for the vpn2 zone the up part of the script will issue the command:

/sbin/shorewall add ipsec0:134.28.54.2 vpn2

and the down part will:

/sbin/shorewall delete ipsec0:134.28.54.2 vpn2

Documentation


Frequently Used Articles

- FAQs - IPv4 Manpages - IPv6 Manpages - Configuration File Basics - Beginner Documentation - Troubleshooting

Shorewall 4.4/4.6 Documentation

Shorewall 4.0/4.2 Documentation


Shorewall 5.0 HOWTOs and Other Articles

- 6to4 and 6in4 Tunnels - Accounting - Actions - Aliased (virtual) Interfaces (e.g., eth0:0) - Anatomy of Shorewall - Anti-Spoofing Measures - AUDIT Target support - Bandwidth Control - Blacklisting/Whitelisting - Bridge/Firewall - Building Shorewall from GIT - Commands - Compiled Programs - Configuration File Basics - DHCP - DNAT - Dynamic Zones - ECN Disabling by host or subnet - Events - Extension Scripts - Fallback/Uninstall - FAQs - Features - Fool's Firewall - Forwarding Traffic on the Same Interface - FTP and Shorewall - Helpers/Helper Modules - Installation/Upgrade - IPP2P - IPSEC - Ipsets - IPv6 Support - ISO 3661 Country Codes - Kazaa Filtering - Kernel Configuration - KVM (Kernel-mode Virtual Machine) - Limiting Connection Rates - Linux Containers (LXC) - Linux-vserver - Logging - Macros - MAC Verification - Manpages (IPv4) (IPv6) - Manual Chains - Masquerading - Multiple Internet Connections from a Single Firewall - Multiple Zones Through One Interface - My Shorewall Configuration - Netfilter Overview - Network Mapping - No firewalling of traffic between bridge port - One-to-one NAT - Operating Shorewall - OpenVPN - OpenVZ - Packet Marking - Packet Processing in a Shorewall-based Firewall - 'Ping' Management - Port Forwarding - Port Information - Port Knocking (deprecated) - Port Knocking, Auto Blacklisting and Other Uses of the 'Recent Match' - PPTP - Proxy ARP - QuickStart Guides - Release Model - Requirements - Routing and Shorewall - Routing on One Interface - Samba - Shorewall Events - Shorewall Init - Shorewall Lite - Shorewall on a Laptop - Shorewall Perl - Shorewall Setup Guide - SMB - SNAT - Split DNS the Easy Way - Squid with Shorewall - Starting/stopping the Firewall - Static (one-to-one) NAT - Support - Tips and Hints - Traffic Shaping/QOS - Simple - Traffic Shaping/QOS - Complex - Transparent Proxy - UPnP - Upgrade Issues - Upgrading to Shorewall 4.4 (Upgrading Debian Lenny to Squeeze) - VPN - VPN Passthrough - White List Creation - Xen - Shorewall in a Bridged Xen DomU - Xen - Shorewall in Routed Xen Dom0

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